Melasma or Pigmentation
Melasma is a chronic skin disorder that results in symmetrical, blotchy, brownish facial pigmentation. It can lead to considerable embarrassment and distress.
The cause of melasma is complex. The pigmentation is due to overproduction of melanin by the pigment cells- melanocytes; which is taken up by the keratinocytes (epidermal melanosis) or deposited in the dermis (dermal melanosis, melanophages). There is a genetic predisposition to melasma. In most people melasma is a chronic disorder.
Known triggers for melasma include:
- Sun exposure and sun damage- this is the most important avoidable risk factor
- Pregnancy - in affected women the pigment often fades a few months after delivery
- Hormone treatments- oral contraceptive pills containing oestrogen and/or progesterone, hormone replacement, intrauterine devices and implants are a factor in about a quarter of affected women
- Certain medications, scented or deodorant soaps, toiletries and cosmetics- these may cause a phototoxic reaction that triggers melasma, which may then persist long term
- Hypothyroidism -low levels of circulating thyroid hormone
- Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)- it deepens the pigmentation because it activates the melanocytes to produce more melanin.
Melasma is more common in women than in men. It generally starts between the age of 20 and 40 years.
Under eye dark circles
Dark circles are commonly described as darkness under the lower eyelids due to increased pigmentation (melanin)
It can be due to various reasons:
- Loss of fatty tissue in the eyelid or around the eyes
- Bulging fat and muscle loss
- Puffy eyelids
- Thin, translucent skin
- Shadowing due to anatomic shape of the orbit
Who are more prone to get dark circles?
People who are more prone to get dark circles are:
- Elderly, however, it can be seen in adolescents also.
- People of non-white ethnic background
- Genetic predisposition
What are the risk factors for dark circles?
Loss of fatty tissue in the eyelid or around the eye (tear trough) is associated with:
- Genetic factors
- Lack of nutrition-crash diet
- Lack of sleep
- Rubbing or scratching the eyes
- Systemic conditions, particularly, thyroid disease, atopic dermatitis
How dark circles are treated?
Treatment of dark circles depends on its nature.
General measures include:
- Adequate sleep and good nutrition
- Smoking cessation
- Sleep with extra pillows to elevate head and reduce eyelid swelling
- Massage temporary swelling while applying a cold compress
- Cold compresses also minimize the appearance of prominent blood vessels
Medical treatments to reduce pigmentation and Dark eyes
Our centre provides specialized treatments for melasma and dark eye pigmentation. Treatments are cost effective and depend upon area, depth, type of skin and cause of pigmentation. In most of the cases combination of treatments are required to treat the pigmentation.
There are multiple treatment modalities available at our centre.
- IPL (photo facial)- this is the preferable method used by dermatologists to treat deeper pigmentation and sun damaged skin.
- Q Switched Nd Yag laser- this highly specific laser is used to treat epidermal and dermal pigmentation in chronic cases.
- Lavatron RF therapy- this is a multipolar RF therapy, used to reduce pigmentation and induce new skin formation and collagen induction.
- Viora reaction- It is very effective in Dark circle reduction by opening the lymphatic blockage and increasing the blood supply of skin near the eyes and helps in skin tightening.
- Chemical peels- various types of chemical peels are used according to skin conditions which help in reducing the pigmentation and improving the skin texture.
- Microdermabrasion- in combination with other modalities microdermabrasion helps by abrading the skin, increase vascularity of skin and thus helps in penetration of various medicines inside the skin.
- Conventional Medicines- as every melasma has its own reason, it’s very essential to diagnose it properly and treat various inside factors and deficiencies with the help of oral and topical medicines.
To seek a consultation with a Best Dermatologist In Delhi or Skin Specialist In Delhi:
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